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  • Pressure oxidation - Wikipedia

    Pressure Oxidation is a process for extracting gold from refractory ore.. The most common refractory ores are pyrite and arsenopyrite, which are sulfide ores that trap the gold within them.Refractory ores require pre-treatment before the gold can be adequately extracted. The pressure oxidation process is used to prepare such ores for conventional gold extraction processes such as cyanidation.

  • Pressure Oxidation of a Refractory Sulfide Concentrate and ...

    Pressure oxidation of the refractory sulfide/carbonaceous ores has gained world-wide acceptance. Compared with roasting, pressure oxidation yields higher gold extractions from ores or concentrates and enables better handling of environmentally sensitive impurities. Normally, gold is extracted from neutralized autoclave leach residue by cyanidation. Silver extraction, however, remains low due ...

  • Gold extraction - Wikipedia

    OverviewRefractory gold processesHistoryTypes of oreConcentrationLeachingGold smeltingGold refining and parting

    A "refractory" gold ore is an ore that has ultra fine gold particles disseminated throughout its gold occluded minerals. These ores are naturally resistant to recovery by standard cyanidation and carbon adsorption processes. These refractory ores require pre-treatment in order for cyanidation to be effective in recovery of the gold. A refractory ore generally contains sulfide minerals, organic carbon, or both. Sulfide minerals are impermeable minerals that occlude gold particles, making it difficult for the leach s

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  • pressure oxidation gold plant - FlexiBle

    high pressure oxidation of refractory gold minerals. Pressure Oxidation POX is a process used to extract gold copper zinc molybdenum and uranium from refractory ore bodies The POX process utilizes elevated temperatures roughly 230 degrees Celsius elevated pressures roughly 35 bar or 510 psi and oxygen to. Get Price . BIOX Operations. The São Bento Mine in Brazil was commissioned in 1986 and ...

  • PRESSURE OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD ORES: THE

    Pressure oxidation is employed to liberate gold and silver in refractory sulfide concentrates often and ores. The main pressure oxidation products from iron sulfide minerals are sulfuric acid (and metal sulfates) and hematite. Depending on the conditions within the autoclave, acid containing iron compounds can be formed. Such compounds include basic iron sulfate (BFS) and jarosites. The ...

  • Pressure Oxidation - Caldera Engineering

    Pressure Oxidation (POX) is a process used to extract gold, copper, zinc, molybdenum, and uranium from refractory ore bodies. The POX process utilizes elevated temperatures (roughly 230 degrees Celsius), elevated pressures (roughly 35 bar or 510 psi), and oxygen to liberate the minerals from refractory

  • Pressure Oxidation Mining SGS

    Pressure oxidation (POX), high pressure oxidation (HiPOX) and ACTIVOX autoclave leaching are viable industry-standard technologies used to recover gold and other accessory metals. The process is particularly well suited for treating refractory gold ores, which

  • Valves for gold autoclave pressure oxidation (POX) Neles

    Autoclave pressure oxidation (POX) is an effective pre-treatment option when extracting gold from refractory ore bodies, such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. While gold processing plants are the most common utilizers of POX technology, the process can also be applied to other metals, like copper, zinc and uranium. Neles™ has a wide range of valves and services for POX process. Benefits. Higher ...

  • Barrick Gold Autoclaving Processes - AusIMM

    This paper reviews the various processes successfully in operation to treat refractory gold ores and describes in detail the alkaline pressure oxidation circuit operating at the Barrick Mercur Mine, Utah, U.S.A., on car- bonaceous/sulphide refractory ore and the acidic pressure oxidation circuit operating at the Barrick Goldstrike Mine, near Carlin, Nevada, U.S.A., on sulphide refractory...

  • Refractory Gold Ore Treatment Methods

    Gold Sulphide Ore Oxidation by Alkaline Pressure. Some stibnite gold ores are more amenable to cyanidation when previously subjected to surface oxidation in the pulverulent condition, with the formation of a sulphate film, which on contact with water yields an insoluble basic sulphate. The oxidation may also open up the fissure planes, setting free the associated gold. This oxidation may

  • Redox potential measurement during pressure oxidation

    Pressure oxidation (POX) leaching has been commercially applied to refractory gold ores since the 1980s. In the process, sulphide material is oxidised and dissolved in order to release the gold encapsulated in the sulphide matrix, making the gold available for further recovery. Redox potential is a significant parameter during POX; however, it is measured ex situ only at atmospheric conditions ...

  • Pressure Oxidation Pretreatment of Refractory Gold ...

    Pressure oxidation of gold containing concentrates and ores is an effective pretreatment for liberating refractory gold. This is particularly true when an appreciable portion of the gold is associated with sulfides and is not amenable to conventional cyanidation. A brief review of the literature on pressure oxidation of refractory gold materials is presented.

  • ACID PRESSURE OXIDATION OF REFRACTORY GOLD

    01/01/1987  Pressure oxidation of these refractory gold mineral carriers is a very complex reaction system involving several oxidation and hydrolytic reactions which occur in series and/or parallel. Moreover these oxidation reactions are highly exothermic. Since the nature and composition of the reaction products can have a considerable impact on the downstream operations of gold and silver

  • Pilot plant pressure oxidation of refractory gold-silver ...

    A pilot plant campaign has been conducted by Sherritt Technologies in support of Eldorado Gold Corporation's evaluation of pressure oxidation (POX) technology for the treatment of refractory gold concentrates from the Certej deposit in Romania. Preliminary batch tests indicated that gold extraction from the oxidised concentrates in subsequent cyanide leaching was adversely affected by the ...

  • Valves for gold autoclave pressure oxidation (POX) Neles

    Autoclave pressure oxidation (POX) is an effective pre-treatment option when extracting gold from refractory ore bodies, such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. While gold processing plants are the most common utilizers of POX technology, the process can also be applied to other metals, like copper, zinc and uranium. Neles™ has a wide range of valves and services for POX process. Benefits. Higher ...

  • Basic Iron Sulphate in Pressure Oxidation Processing

    Pressure oxidation technology was . developed more than 50 years ago for the treatment of base metal concentrates (mainly sphalerite), and was adapted in the 1980’s for the treatment of gold-containing pyrite and arsenopyrite ores and concentrates. The conditions that have evolved for oxidation of refractory gold concentrates

  • PRESSURE OXIDATION OF PYRITE-ARSENOPYRITE REFRACTORY GOLD ...

    Pressure oxidation of pyrite-arsenopyrite refractory gold concentrate 105 350 kPa, 15%) or increased very slowly (test 3, 165°C, 1050 kPa, 5%). At higher tem-perature and oxygen pressure the oxygen consumption was more rapid and reached a steady level in 55–60 minutes (test 9 I, 195°C, 700 kPa, 10%). At highest temperature

  • pressure oxidation plants for gold production worldwide

    Pressure Oxidation (POX) is a process used to extract gold, copper, zinc, molybdenum, and uranium from refractory ore bodi The POX process utilizes elevated temperatures (roughly 230 degrees Celsius), elevated pressures (roughly 35 bar or 510 psi), and oxygen to ,...

  • ALTA MetBytes - What's Happening in Gold Ore Processing

    implemented by Barrick to treat double refractory gold ore following pressure oxidation at its Goldstrike Mine in Nevada, USA. The CSIRO reagent system is an alternative to cyanide and has particular application where cyanide cannot be used and to unlock stranded high-grade deposits. CSIRO in collaboration with Eco Minerals Research Limited, Australia, commenced a project in July 2017 to ...

  • PRESSURE LEACHING - RPMGlobal

    A major revolution in gold processing was the pressure oxidation of refractory, pyritic ores. In these ores, gold is chemically entrained in sulfides which require oxidation prior to standard cyanidation techniques. Many of these plants were built in the western United States in the early 1980’s including McLaughlin (1985), Mercur (1988), and Getchel (1989). Additional plant commissioning ...

  • Pressure Oxidation Pretreatment of Refractory Gold ...

    Pressure oxidation of gold containing concentrates and ores is an effective pretreatment for liberating refractory gold. This is particularly true when an appreciable portion of the gold is associated with sulfides and is not amenable to conventional cyanidation. A brief review of the literature on pressure oxidation of refractory gold materials is presented.

  • Research on chlorination leaching of pressure-oxidized ...

    01/06/2020  Biological oxidation, chemical oxidation, pressure oxidation, and roasting oxidation are now using for the pretreatment of refractory gold concentrates (Li et al., 2009; Su et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2019), among which the pressure oxidation is the most promising (Zhang et al., 2016b). The other alternative is to search for non-cyanide lixiviants. The non-cyanide lixiviants studied so far for ...

  • Oxidation of a refractory gold concentrate using

    Casingena, C, Czerny, C, Paterson, L and Carter, P, 2019. Oxidation of a refractory gold concentrate using pressure, atmospheric and bacterial oxidation processes, in Proceedings World Gold 2019, p 681 (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne).

  • the gold strike pressure oxidation plant process

    Pressure Oxidation Pressure oxidation is employed to liberate gold and silver in refractory sulfide concentrates often and ores. The main pressure oxidation products from iron sulfide minerals are sulfuric acid (and metal sulfates) and hematite. Depending on the conditions within the autoclave, acid containing iron compounds can be formed.

  • Pressure Oxidation Base Metal and Solid-Liquid Recovery ...

    refractory, double-refractory, pre-robbing or reagent consumer characteristics. Referring to the figure to the right, current available treatment processes for these ores typically include fine grinding, roasting, pressure oxidation (“POX”) and atmospheric acid oxidation or biological oxidation, followed by cyanide leaching. These

  • ALTA MetBytes - What's Happening in Gold Ore Processing

    implemented by Barrick to treat double refractory gold ore following pressure oxidation at its Goldstrike Mine in Nevada, USA. The CSIRO reagent system is an alternative to cyanide and has particular application where cyanide cannot be used and to unlock stranded high-grade deposits. CSIRO in collaboration with Eco Minerals Research Limited, Australia, commenced a project in July 2017 to ...

  • POX Hub – Petropavlovsk PLC

    Pressure oxidation technology is the most efficient and environmentally-friendly technology for processing refractory gold ore and enables the Group to unlock the value embedded within c.5.31Moz of its own refractory reserves (including double-refractory ore), as well as treat 3 rd party refractory material and future potential to exploit high-quality refractory orebodies across Russia and ...

  • Valves for autoclaves – pressure oxidation ( POX)

    pressure oxidation ( POX) Process overview In the mining and minerals processing industry, autoclaves are utilized to extract metals from refractory ore bodies. Refractory gold ores require pre-treatment before the conventional CIL, CIC or CIC cyanidation process can take place. One pre-treatment option for the refractory ore is autoclave pressure oxidation (POX). This method is often used in ...

  • The Leachox™ Refractory Gold Process – The Testing, Design ...

    The Leachox refractory gold process has to date been applied to the selectivetreatment of ... Processes such as roasting, pressure oxidation, and bacterial oxidation are all aimed at breaking down the sulphide matrix to liberate gold. Ultra-fine grinding performs the same function particularly where gold is locked in silicates or other minerals. Many of these processes are well developed and ...

  • ALTA Gold 2012 E-Doc - Albion Process

    leaching to the aggressive conditions found in pressure oxidation. The gold and sulphur (sulphides and elemental sulphur) grades relate directly to the economics of the process. Much has been written about the suitability of particular pretreatment processes, such as pressure oxidation, bio oxidation and roasting, for specific ores bodies (1-4). More recent technologies such as the Albion ...

  • Pressure oxidation - Wikipedia

    Pressure Oxidation is a process for extracting gold from refractory ore.. The most common refractory ores are pyrite and arsenopyrite, which are sulfide ores that trap the gold within them.Refractory ores require pre-treatment before the gold can be adequately extracted. The pressure oxidation process is used to prepare such ores for conventional gold extraction processes such as cyanidation.

  • Oxidation of a refractory gold concentrate using

    Casingena, C, Czerny, C, Paterson, L and Carter, P, 2019. Oxidation of a refractory gold concentrate using pressure, atmospheric and bacterial oxidation processes, in Proceedings World Gold 2019, p 681 (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne).

  • Pressure Oxidation Base Metal and Solid-Liquid Recovery ...

    refractory, double-refractory, pre-robbing or reagent consumer characteristics. Referring to the figure to the right, current available treatment processes for these ores typically include fine grinding, roasting, pressure oxidation (“POX”) and atmospheric acid oxidation or biological oxidation, followed by cyanide leaching. These

  • Pressure Oxidation Plants For Gold Mining - Machine

    Valves For Autoclaves Pressure Oxidation Pox. 2018-9-27for the refractory ore is autoclave pressure oxidation POX. This method is often used in the extraction of gold in cases where the gold is trapped in sulphide minerals such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. Even though gold processing plants are the most common users of POX -technology the ...

  • high pressure oxidation of refractory gold minerals

    high pressure oxidation of refractory gold minerals. Pressure Oxidation POX is a process used to extract gold copper zinc molybdenum and uranium from refractory ore bodies The POX process utilizes elevated temperatures roughly 230 degrees Celsius elevated pressures roughly 35 bar or 510 psi and oxygen to . Whatever your requirements, you 'll find the perfect service-oriented solution to match ...

  • High Pressure O Idation Of Refractory Gold Minerals

    High Pressure O Idation Of Refractory Gold Minerals. Zircon sand beneficiation plant spiral mining equipment for zircon heavy mineral zircon ore mining process is the process of remove the mineral sand processing plant blueoceanconstruction we can provide you the complete stone crushing and beneficiation plantwe download lagu heavy mineral sand processing plant for zircon

  • Gold recovery from refractory gold concentrates by ...

    Pressure oxidation technology for the treatment of refractory gold concentrates has been deployed in some countries. Shuiyindong gold deposit is one of the Carlin-type deposits which is a typical difficult-to-treat gold deposit, located in Guizhou province in western China. It was the first application of acid pressure oxidation in China. The ...

  • Valves for autoclaves – pressure oxidation ( POX)

    pressure oxidation ( POX) Process overview In the mining and minerals processing industry, autoclaves are utilized to extract metals from refractory ore bodies. Refractory gold ores require pre-treatment before the conventional CIL, CIC or CIC cyanidation process can take place. One pre-treatment option for the refractory ore is autoclave pressure oxidation (POX). This method is often used in ...

  • Refractory ore trouble Russian gold miners - Mining

    28/09/2016  Using Petropavlovsk’s proposed pressure oxidation facility as an example, the company said in 2012 it expected processing costs at its Pioneer mine of US$9.4 per tonne for non-refractory ore and US$12.3 per tonne for refractory ore. The company also budgeted US$500 million for the POX hub’s development. Not using special processing for the complex ore lodes also doesn’t seem viable ...

  • REFRACTORY GOLD - PanTerra Gold Limited

    REFRACTORY GOLD. By definition, refractory gold ores contain gold that is resistant to extraction by conventional chemical processing and as a result responds poorly to traditional gold cyanidation techniques such as Carbon-in-Leach (CIL), yielding less than 80% of the contained gold. Refractory gold consists of extremely fine grained gold particles that are either physically encapsulated ...